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International Conference on Cardiology and Diabetes, will be organized around the theme “”

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\r\n A branch of biology and medicine which primarily deals with the study of endocrine system, hormones and its disorders constitutes Endocrinology. It also involves the study of metabolism, growth and development, digestion, tissue function and various other psychological or behavioural activities which are influenced by hormones. Diabetes, on the other hand, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period mainly due to insulin deficiency or resistance.

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\r\n Diabetes is mainly of three types however, research has shown that a variety of other rare types of diabetes also exists. While insulin deficiency or resistance is the chief causative factor for the three main types of diabetes, there are a host of other factors which are responsible for the rare types of diabetes. Diabetes pathophysiology seeks to highlight the functional changes in an organism brought about due to the occurrence of diabetes.

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\r\n Complications associated with diabetes are often acute or chronic. Acute complications, though short-termed, can often present immediate danger and thus needs to be treated at the earliest possible. These short-term complications are mainly characterized by the hypoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic state of the body in which it is unable to function properly. Acute complications mainly include diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma and so on. These complications if promptly treated, usually results in full recovery, however might prove fatal in case of delayed treatment.

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\r\n Obesity is a major risk factor which is leading to several disfunctions of our body. Overweight makes the cells resistant to the salutary action of insulin which is secreted naturally in our body. This condition leads to type 2 diabetes. Obesity is the major cause for type 2 diabetes. If people reduce weight, then type 2 diabetes are reversible

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\r\n Also known as diabetic kidney disease (DKD), diabetic nephropathy is the chronic loss of kidney function primarily because of high blood glucose level. About 40% of the individuals affected with Diabetes Mellitus, eventually develops DKD. Diabetic Nephropathy is characterized by the loss of protein in the urine (proteinuria or albuminuria) and by a decline in the estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate of the kidneys. It is one of the most common causes of End-Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD) which can ultimately lead to kidney failure. A proper diet, healthy lifestyle, regular checking of blood glucose and lowering blood pressure can help prevent diabetic nephropathy and protect kidney function.

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\r\n Diabetics are more prone to developing dental complications than those who have a proper control over their blood glucose level. There are a host of dental and gum diseases associated with diabetes including gingivitis, periodontitis (mild and severe), fungal infections, dry mouth, loose teeth and so on. Prolonged levels of blood glucose can lead to developing or worsening of dental infections. Keeping a check on the blood glucose level, maintaining proper oral and dental hygiene can help mitigate such complications.

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\r\n Diabetic neuropathy or nerve damage which is brought about by diabetes is a severe form of the diabetic complications. High blood glucose levels often damage the small blood vessels which supplies essential nutrients thereby causing neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy mostly affects the nerves in legs and feet. Apart from neuropathy, diabetes has also been linked to various other disorders of the brain including Alzheimer's disease, Memory loss, Gastric Problem, Mental Health, etc. Though a serious complication, progress of diabetic neuropathy can be slowed down with tight blood sugar control and a healthy lifestyle.

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\r\n Diabetes can also cause a group of eye conditions which are collectively called Diabetic eye disease. The most common form of the disease is diabetic retinopathy which is associated with damage to the tiny blood vessels in the retina. This condition can progress through four stages and eventually result in retinal detachment or permanent vision loss. Other forms of diabetic eye disease include Glaucoma, Cataracts, Blindness, etc. For early detection and treatment of such disease, it is necessary for affected individuals to undergo retinopathy screening and taking proper care of oneself.

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\r\n Having diabetes greatly enhances the risk of developing a heart disease and having a greater chance of a heart attack or a stroke. High blood pressure or high cholesterol which is often associated with diabetes is the main causative factors of cardiovascular diseases. Apart from these, several other serious vascular complications also arise because of diabetes viz. Angina, Deep vein thrombosis, endothelial dysfunction, Peripheral arterial disease, etc.  Identifying symptoms, maintaining a healthy weight, proper diet and medications and cutting down on smoking can help keep these otherwise serious complications under control.

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\r\n Often, raised blood glucose can damage the sensation in the feet, affecting blood circulation to the area without which there usually tends to be delay in healing of the cuts and sores. When these symptoms are kept untreated, various complications are likely to arise like foot ulcers, foot infections and foot deformation and might also lead to amputation. Therefore, it is extremely necessary to take proper care of the foot, undergo regular foot examinations and keep diabetes under control.

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